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Researchers discover how gut bacteria influences brain development

Researchers have now found possible targets for the early treatment of brain damage in premature babies.

Researchers discover how gut bacteria influences brain development

The research team found that the overgrowth of the gastrointestinal tract with the bacterium Klebsiella is associated with an increased presence of certain immune cells and the development of neurological damage in premature babies.

The early development of the gut, the brain and the immune system are closely interrelated. Researchers refer to this as the gut-immune-brain axis. Bacteria in the gut cooperate with the immune system, which in turn monitors gut microbes and develops appropriate responses to them. In addition, the gut is in contact with the brain via the vagus nerve as well as via the immune system.

“The microorganisms of the gut microbiome — which is a vital collection of hundreds of species of bacteria, fungi, viruses and other microbes — are in equilibrium in healthy people. However, especially in premature babies, whose immune system and microbiome have not been able to develop fully, shifts are quite likely to occur. These shifts may result in negative effects on the brain,” explains microbiologist and immunologist, David Seki.

The study monitored a total of 60 premature infants, born before 28 weeks gestation and weighing less than 1 kilogram, for several weeks or even months. Using state-of-the-art methods — the team examined the microbiome using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, among other methods — the researchers analysed blood and stool samples, brain wave recordings (e.g. aEEG) and MRI images of the infants’ brains.

Researchers will continue to follow the children of the initial study. “How the children’s motoric and cognitive skills develop only becomes apparent over several years,” explains Angelika Berger. “We aim to understand how this very early development of the gut-immune-brain axis plays out in the long term. ”

Source:University of Vienna

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