Men who eat plenty of fermented dairy products, like yoghurt and kefir, have a smaller risk of incident coronary heart disease than men who eat less of these products, according to a new study.
A very high consumption of non-fermented dairy products, according to a study published by researchers at the University of Eastern Finland, is associated with an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease. The findings were published in the British Journal of Nutrition.
Earlier studies have shown that fermented dairy products have more positive effects on blood lipid profiles and on the risk of heart disease than other dairy products. Examples of fermented dairy products include cheese, yoghurt, quark, kefir and sour milk. However, research into the topic remains scarce.
Sour milk is not milk that’s past its use by date. Soured milk is produced by fermentation with the addition of an acid, like lemon juice. It’s also referred to as fermented milk or cultured milk, and is commonly made at home in Europe and Africa.
The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study ongoing at the University of Eastern Finland explored the associations of fermented and non-fermented dairy products with the risk of incident coronary heart disease. Approximately 2,000 men participated in the study. Their dietary habits were assessed at the beginning of the study in 1984–1989, and they were followed up for an average of 20 years. During this follow-up, 472 men experienced an incident coronary heart disease event.
When the study participants were divided into four groups on the basis of their consumption of fermented dairy products with less than 3.5% fat, the risk of incident coronary heart disease was 26% lower in the highest consumption group compared to the lowest consumption group. Sour milk was the most commonly used low-fat fermented dairy product. The consumption of high-fat fermented dairy products, such as cheese, was not associated with the risk of incident coronary heart disease.
However, the researchers found that a very high consumption of non-fermented dairy products was associated with an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease. Milk was the most commonly used product in this category, and a very high consumption was defined as an average daily milk intake of 0.9 litres. Lower consumption levels were not associated with the risk.
“Here in Finland, people’s habits of consuming different dairy products have changed over the past decades. For instance, the consumption of milk and sour milk have declined, while many fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, quark and cheeses, have gained in popularity,” Adjunct Professor Jyrki Virtanen from the University of Eastern Finland says.